Perfume 101 – The Basics of Fragrance Notes & Accords

Perfume is more than just a pleasant scent – it’s an art form combining science, creativity and personal expression. Understanding the basics of perfume notes and accords is essential for anyone looking to deepen their appreciation of perfumes. Are you a fragrance enthusiast or a curious beginner? Read on to equip yourself with the knowledge of fragrance descriptions so you can confidently select perfumes that suit your unique preferences.

Perfume notes and accords


All About Perfume Notes

Fragrance notes are the individual components that make up the scent of a perfume. These notes are carefully selected and blended to create a harmonious and pleasing fragrance. Perfumes are typically structured in three layers: top notes, middle (heart) notes and base notes. Each layer unfolds at different times, creating a luscious, dynamic scent experience.

What are Top, Middle and Base Notes?

Top Notes

So, what are top notes in perfume? A perfume’s top notes are the initial scents you smell immediately after applying a perfume. They are light and refreshing, designed to make a strong first impression but evaporate quickly.

Characteristics – Bright, fresh and often sharp.

Common top notes – Citrus (lemon, bergamot, orange), light florals (lavender, rose petals) and green notes (basil, mint).

Middle Notes

These emerge as the top notes begin to fade and form the core of the perfume, providing depth and body to the fragrance.

Characteristics – Smooth, well-rounded and fuller than top notes.

Common middle notes – Floral (rose, jasmine, ylang-ylang), spices (cinnamon, clove, nutmeg) and herbs (thyme, rosemary).

Base Notes

Base perfume notes are the foundation of the fragrance, appearing after the middle notes have fully developed. They provide lasting power and depth to the fragrance.

Characteristics – Rich, deep and long-lasting.

Common base notes – Woods (sandalwood, cedarwood), resins (amber, myrrh) and musks (white musk, animalic musk).

How Fragrance Notes Interact

Designed to interact harmoniously, perfume notes create a seamless transition from one layer to the next. This progression is essential for a well-balanced perfume, ensuring that the scent evolves pleasantly over time.

  • Balance and harmony: A skilled perfumer balances the different notes to create a cohesive fragrance where each layer complements the others.


  • Development over time: As you wear the perfume, the top notes will fade, giving way to the heart notes, which will eventually blend into the base notes. This development is what makes wearing perfume an enjoyable experience.

What are Perfume Accords?

In the world of perfumery, an accord is a blend of multiple notes creating a new, unique scent profile. Perfume accords are the building blocks of a perfume, providing complexity and character. Unlike single notes, which are individual scent components, accords are combinations of notes that harmonise to form a distinct fragrance impression.

Common Fragrance Accords

Accords are used to define the overall character of a perfume. Here are some popular accords and the typical notes that make them up:

  • Floral Accord

Floral accords are among the most common and versatile in perfumery. They can range from fresh and light to rich and opulent.

Typical notes: Rose, jasmine, lily, violet and gardenia.

  • Oriental Accord

Oriental accords are warm, exotic and often spicy, evoking a sense of mystery and sensuality.

Typical notes – Vanilla, amber, musk, spices (cinnamon, clove) and resins (frankincense, myrrh).

  • Woody Accord

Woody accords provide a grounding and sophisticated base for many perfumes. They are often dry and earthy.

Typical notes: Sandalwood, cedarwood, patchouli, vetiver and oakmoss.

  • Fresh Accord

Fresh accords are clean, crisp and invigorating, perfect for a light and airy fragrance.

Typical notes: Citrus (lemon, bergamot, grapefruit), green notes (grass, basil, mint) and aquatic notes (sea breeze, water lily).

  • Gourmand Accord

Gourmand accords are sweet and edible-smelling, often evoking the scents of desserts and confections.

Typical notes –Vanilla, caramel, chocolate, coffee and honey.


Popular Perfume Notes and Accords Examples

Here are a few examples of iconic perfumes, along with a breakdown of their top, middle and base notes, as well as the accords they embody.

YSL Black Opium

  • Description: YSL Black Opium is a modern, seductive fragrance known for its rich, dark and sweet character.
  • Top Notes: Pink pepper, orange blossom and pear.
  • Middle Notes: Coffee, jasmine, bitter almond and liquorice. 
  • Base Notes: Vanilla, patchouli, cedar, cashmere wood.
  • Accords: Oriental-vanilla accord. This comes from the deep, spicy and rich notes like coffee, liquorice and patchouli, while the vanilla adds a sweet, creamy finish that softens and rounds out the fragrance.

See our vegan YSL Black Opium dupe perfume here.

Dior J’adore

  • Description: J’adore by Dior is a modern floral fragrance that exudes sophistication and sensuality.
  • Top Notes: Pear, melon, magnolia, peach, mandarin orange, bergamot.
  • Middle Notes: Jasmine, lily of the valley, tuberose, freesia, rose, orchid.
  • Base Notes: Musk, vanilla, blackberry, cedar.
  • Accords: Fruity-floral accord. The fresh and juicy top notes blend seamlessly with the opulent floral heart, anchored by a warm and creamy base.

See our vegan J’Adore dupe perfume here.

Guerlain Shalimar

  • Description: Shalimar by Guerlain is a classic oriental fragrance, renowned for its sensual and exotic aroma.
  • Top Notes: Bergamot, lemon, cedar, mandarin orange.
  • Middle Notes: Iris, patchouli, jasmine, rose, vetiver.
  • Base Notes: Vanilla, incense, leather, opoponax, sandalwood, tonka bean.
  • Accords: Oriental-woody accord. The citrus opening transitions to a rich and smoky heart, with a luxurious vanilla base.

See our vegan Shalimar dupe perfume here.

Tom Ford Black Orchid

  • Description: Black Orchid by Tom Ford is a bold and distinctive fragrance, celebrated for its dark and mysterious character.
  • Top Notes: Truffle, gardenia, black currant, ylang-ylang, bergamot, mandarin orange, jasmine.
  • Middle Notes: Orchid, spices, gardenia, fruity notes, lotus.
  • Base Notes: Mexican chocolate, patchouli, vanilla, incense, amber, sandalwood, vetiver.
  • Accords: Oriental-floral-gourmand accord. The blend of earthy, floral and sweet notes creates a complex and intriguing scent profile.

See our vegan Tom Ford Black Orchid dupe perfume here.

Jo Malone Lime Basil & Mandarin

  • Description: Lime Basil & Mandarin by Jo Malone is a fresh and modern fragrance, perfect for everyday wear.
  • Top Notes: Lime, mandarin orange, bergamot.
  • Middle Notes: Basil, lilac, iris, thyme.
  • Base Notes: Vetiver, patchouli.
  • Accords: Citrus-herbal accord. The zesty top notes are complemented by the aromatic heart, with a grounding earthy base.

See our vegan Jo Malone Lime Basil and Mandarin dupe perfume here.

Discover Your Signature Scent Today

Exploring perfumes through their notes and accords allows you to discover scents that resonate with your style and preferences. You can empower yourself to make informed choices, whether you’re adding to your collection, gifting a loved one or even experimenting with creating your DIY fragrances.

Ready to find your perfect scent? Browse our extensive collection of cloned perfumes to discover iconic fragrances and hidden gems that suit your unique taste, visit our Eden Perfumes website to explore more and shop now. 


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